Peer-reviewed Publications

2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2000.

Publications and communications report (PDF 91.3kB)
from the Open Repository and Bibliography of the University of Luxembourg.

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R. Bisdorff (2016). Computing linear rankings from trillions of pairwise outranking situations. In Proceedings of DA2PL'2016 From Multiple Criteria Decision Aid to Preference Learning, R. Busa-Fekete, E. Hüllermeier, V. Mousseau and K. Pfannschmidt (Eds.), University of Paderborn (Germany), Nov. 7-8 2016: 1-6 (downloadable full text PDF file 451.4 kB).

S. S. Wagle, M. Guzek, P. Bouvry and R. Bisdorff (2016). Comparison of Heat Map and IFL Technique to evaluate the Performance of Commercially Available Cloud Providers. In Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (Cloud 2016), San Francisco, California (USA), June 27 - July 2 2016 (downloadable full text PDF file 819 kB).


S. S. Wagle, M. Guzek, P. Bouvry and R. Bisdorff (2015). An Evaluation Model for Selecting Cloud Services from Commercially Available Cloud Providers. In Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science, Vancouver, Canada, November 30 - December 2 2015, ISBN 978-1-4673-9560-1/15 pp 107-114 (downloadable full text PDF file 1.4 MB).

R. Bisdorff, L.C. Dias, P. Meyer, V. Mousseau and M. Pirlot (Eds.) (2015). Evaluation and decision models with multiple criteria: Case studies. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, International Handbooks on Information Systems, DOI 10.1007/978-3-662-46816-6_1, 643 pages (downloadable content extract PDF file 401.4 Kb).

XMCDA encoded case data files available here for Chapters 5, 7 and 8.

Book cover page

R. Bisdorff (2015). The EURO 2004 Best Poster Award: Choosing the Best Poster in a Scientific Conference. Chapter 5 in R. Bisdorff, L. Dias, P. Meyer, V. Mousseau, and M. Pirlot (Eds.), Evaluation and Decision Models with Multiple Criteria: Case Studies. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, International Handbooks on Information Systems, DOI 10.1007/978-3-662-46816-6_1, pp. 117-166 (downloadable PDF file 754.7 kB).


R. Bisdorff (2014). On confident outrankings with multiple criteria of uncertain significance In Proceedings of DA2PL'2014 From Multiple Criteria Decision Aid to Preference Learning, V. Mousseau and M. Pirlot (Eds.), Ecole Centrale Paris, Nov. 20-21 2014: 119-124 (downloadable full text PDF file 401.9 Kb).

R. Bisdorff, P. Meyer and Th. Veneziano (2014). Elicitation of criteria weights maximising the stability of pairwise outranking statements. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (Wiley) 21: 113-124 (downloadable preprint PDF file 431.4 Kb).


A. Olteanu, P. Meyer and R. Bisdorff (2013). Descriptive Profiles for Sets of Alternatives in Multiple Criteria Decision Aid. In P. Perny, M. Pirlot, and A. Tsoukias (Eds.): Algorithmic Decision Theory ADT 2013, LNAI 8176 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 285–296 (downloadable preprint PDF file 220.5 Kb).

R. Bisdorff (2013). On Polarizing Outranking Relations with Large Performance Differences. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (Wiley) 20:3-12 (downloadable preprint PDF file 403.5 Kb).


R. Bisdorff (2012). On measuring and testing the ordinal correlation between bipolar outranking relations. In Proceedings of DA2PL'2012 - From Multiple Criteria Decision Aid to Preference Learning, M. Pirlot and V. Mousseau (Eds.), University of Mons, November 15-16, pp. 91-100 (downloadable PDF file 488.4 kB).


R. Bisdorff and M. Zam (2011). Modern MCDA software: requirements and opportunities. Opinion Makers, in "The electronic newsletter of the EURO working group on Multiple Criteria Decision Aid", Spring 2011 edition, pp. 1-3 (downloadable PDF file 901.3 Kb).

R. Bisdorff, P. Meyer and A. Olteanu (2011). A Clustering Approach using Weighted Similarity Majority Margins. J. Tang et al. (Eds.): Advanced Data Mining and Applications ADMA 2011, Part I, Springer-Verlag LNAI 7120, pp. 15–28 (downloadable PDF file 227.2 Kb).


R. Bisdorff (2010). On a bipolar foundation of the outranking concept. In proceedings of the 25th Mini EURO Conference Uncertainty and Robustness in Planning and Decision Making URPDM-2010, University of Coimbra (Portugal), ISBN 978-989-95055-3-7, pp. 1-6 (downloadable preprint PDF file).

Th. Veneziano, P. Meyer and R. Bisdorff (2010). Analyse inverse robuste à partir d'information préférentielle partielle. Actes de la conférence ROADEF-2010, ENAC-TOULOUSE-FRANCE, ISBN 2-7238-0414-3, pp. 75-88 (preprint downloadable PDF file 191.1 Kb).


R. Bisdorff, P. Meyer and Th. Veneziano (2009). Inverse analysis from a Condorcet robustness denotation of valued outranking relations. In F. Rossi and A. Tsoukiás (Eds.), Algorithmic Decision Theory. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, LNAI 5783, pp. 180-191 (preprint downloadable PDF file).

R. Bisdorff (2009). The Decision Deck Project. The Electronic Newsletter of the International Society of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Martin Josef Geiger (editor), Issue 2 (August) 2009, pp. 20-23 (downloadable extract PDF file 807.2 Kb).


R. Bisdorff and J.L. Marichal (2008). Counting non-isomorphic maximal independent sets of the n-cycle graph. Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 11 Article 08.5.7 (openly accessible here).

R. Bisdorff (2008). A new criteria correlation for multiple criteria decision analysis. In Proceedings of The DIMACS-LAMSADE Workshop on Algorithmic Decision Theory, Paris, 28-31 October 2008, Université Paris-Dauphine, Annales du Lamsade 9:47-57 (downloadable preliminary version PDF file 167.3Kb).

R. Bisdorff (2008). The Rubis Decision-Deck software resources. In the newsletter of the European Working Group "Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding" serie 3 n.17 Spring 2008 pp 1-4 (downloadable PDF file 806.6Kb).

R. Bisdorff (2008). On clustering the criteria in an outranking based decision aid approach. In Modelling, Computation and Optimization in Information Systems and Management Sciences, H. A. Le Thi, P. Bouvry, and D. Pham (eds), Springer CCIS 14 409-418, ISBN 978-3-540-87476-8. (downloadable preliminary version PDF file 144.5Kb).

P. Meyer, J.-L. Marichal and R. Bisdorff (2008). Disagregation of bipolar-valued outranking relations. In Modelling, Computation and Optimization in Information Systems and Management Sciences, H. A. Le Thi, P. Bouvry, and D. Pham (eds), Springer CCIS 14 204-213, ISBN 978-3-540-87476-8. (downloadable preliminary version PDF file 129.9Kb)

R. Bisdorff (2008). Presentation of the DECISION-DECK Project; Distributed DECISION-DECK - D3; Presentation of the D2-Rubis plugin. In Proceedings of Group Decision and Negotiation 2008, J. Climaco, G. Kertsen and J.P. Costa (eds), INESC Coimbra 2008 171-175, ISBN 978-989-95055-2-0. (downloadable preliminary version PDF file 365.4Kb)

R. Bisdorff, P. Meyer and M. Roubens (2008). RUBIS: a bipolar-valued outranking method for the choice problem. 4OR, A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research, Springer-Verlag, Volume 6 Number 2 pp. 143-165. (Online) Electronic version: DOI: 10.1007/s10288-007-0045-5 (downloadable preliminary version PDF file 360.2Kb)

R. Bisdorff, P. Meyer and Y. Siskos (2008). OR and the management of electronic services. EURO'2004 EJOR Cluster, European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 187 (3) 1293-1519.   


P. Meyer and R. Bisdorff (2007), Exploitation of a bipolar-valued outranking relation for the choice of k best alternatives. In Proceedings of FRANCORO V / ROADEF 2007: Conférence scientifique conjointe en Recherche Opérationnelle et Aide à la Décision, Grenoble, France, 20 - 23 February 2007, pp. 193 - 206. (Preprint for downloading: PDF file 205.3 Kb).

More » This article presents the problem of the selection of k best alternatives in the context of multiple criteria decision aid. We situate ourselves in the context of pairwise comparisons of alternatives and the underlying bipolar-valued outranking digraph. We present three formulations for the best k-choice problem and detail how to solve two of them directly on the outranking digraph.

R. Bisdorff, G. Lundberg and J.-L. Marichal (guest editors)(2007), Human Centered Processes: Toward a Naturalistic Decision Making Paradigm. Feature Cluster, European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 177, Issue 3, 16 March 2007, Pages 1313-1519.

More » This feature cluster gathers 14 selected articles which originate in the mini-EURO conference, "Distributed Decision Making and Human-Machine Cooperation," held under the Human Centered Processes (HCP) umbrella in Luxembourg in May of 2003. The contributions to this special HCP feature cluster are divided into four categories:
1. Decision Making Processes;
2. Organizations, Distributed Systems, and Human-Machine Interfaces;
3. Preference Modeling;
4. Human Factors.
A detailed description of this feature cluster may be found in the editorial text by R. Bisdorff and G. Lundberg (see below).

R. Bisdorff and G. Lundberg (2007), Human centered processes: Toward a naturalistic decision making paradigm. Editorial for the feature cluster cited above. European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 177, Issue 3, 16 March 2007, Pages 1313-1316. (Online) Electronic version: DOI::10.1016/j.ejor.2005.04.004 (Downlaodable preliminary version PDF file 84.6 Kb).


R. Bisdorff (2006). On enumerating the kernels in a bipolar-valued digraph. Annales du Lamsade 6, Octobre 2006, pp. 1 - 38. Université Paris-Dauphine. ISSN 1762-455X (downloadable version PDF file 532.2 Kb).

More » Minimal independent and outranking or outranked choices, i.e. kernels, in valued outranking digraphs are an essential formal tool for solving best unique choice problems in the context of our multicriteria decision aid methodology. It appears, following recent formal results, that computing these kernels may rely on the enumeration of all kernels observed in the associated crisp median cut outranking digraph. Knowing these crisp kernels allows one to compute the associated bipolar-valued kernel via the fixpoints of the kernel bipolar-valued characteristic equation systems. In this article we shall therefore, first, present the bipolar-valued concepts of outranking digraphs and independent outranking and outranked choices, each associated with their corresponding median cut crisp concept. In a second section, we shall then discuss general algorithms for enumerating crisp outranking and/or outranked choices in a bipolar-valued digraph. A third section will be devoted to extending these algorithms in order to compute the corresponding bipolar-valued choices.

R. Bisdorff, M. Pirlot and M. Roubens (2006). Choices and kernels from bipolar valued digraphs. European Journal of Operational Research, 175 (2006) 155-170. (Online) Electronic version: DOI:10.1016/j.ejor.2005.05.004 (downloadable preliminary version PDF file 257.3Kb).

More » We explore the extension of the notion of kernel (independent, dominant or absorbent, non-empty subset of nodes) of a digraph to bipolar valued graphs (or relations). We define various natural extensions and show the relationship between them. This work has potential interest for applications in choice decision problems.


R. Bisdorff (2005). On computing dominant and absorbent kernels in bipolar valued digraphs. In Proceedings of the joint 4th EUSFLAT & 11th LFA Conference, September 2005, pp 401-405 (downloadable version PDF file 367.4 Kb).

More » In this communication, we introduce an original algorithm for computing both dominant and ab- sorbent kernels in a bipolar ordinal valued digraph. The approach relies on theoretical results recently obtained in coopeartion with M. Pirlot and M. Roubens which give a constructive – fixpoint equation based – proof of the bijection between bipolar ordinal valued kernels of such a valued digraph and the crisp kernels we observe in the associated strict median cut crisp digraph.


R. Bisdorff (2004). Concordant Outranking with multiple criteria of ordinal significance. 4OR, Quarterly Journal of the Belgian, French and Italian Operations Research Societies, Springer-Verlag, Issue: Volume 2, Number 4, December 2004, Pages: 293 - 308. [ISSN: 1619-4500 (Paper) 1614-2411 (Online)] Electronic version: DOI: 10.1007/s10288-004-0053-7 (downloadable preliminary version PDF file 137.1Kb)

More » In multicriteria decision aid methodology, and more particularly in the outranking methods, the problem of aggregating preference statements along multiple points of view is commonly solved with the help of cardinal weights translating the importance the decision maker gives each point of view. However, determining the exact numerical values of these weights remains one of the most obvious practical difficulties in applying outranking methods. To cope with the difficulty of measuring the exact numerical importance of each point of view in a given decision problem, we extend in a first section the majority concordance principle -- as implemented in the ELECTRE methods -- to the context where merely ordinal information concerning the relative weights of the criteria is available. Basic data and notation is introduced and the classical outranking concept is adapted to our purpose. The ordinal concordance principle is formally introduced and illustrated on a simple car selection problem. In a second section, we address the theoretical foundation of our definition of ordinal concordance. In addition, an operational test for assessing the truthfulness of an ordinally concordant outranking statement is developed. The core approach involves the construction of a distributional dominance test similar in its design to the stochastic dominance approach. In a third section we finally address the general robustness problem of valued outranking statements. Classical dominance, i.e. unanimous concordance, ordinal as well as simple majority concordance, are considered altogether in a common logical framework in order to achieve robust optimal choice recommendations. We rely in this approach on recent work of us on good choices methodology from ordinal valued outranking relations.

R. Bisdorff (2004). Abstract Book of the EURO XX 20th European Conference on Operational Research "OR and the Management of Electronic Services". July 4-7, 2004 Rhodos, Greece, Hellenic Operational Research Society (HELORS) pp. 1-252 (downloadable PDF file 1.4Mb).

More » One of the most important concerns of the European Union is the ensuring and continuous improvement of goods and services within the Europe of today and tomorrow. Among the technologies used for this purpose, the Internet has become a powerful vehicle of services rather than just a repository of information. Many organizations are struggling to put their core business competences on the Internet as a collection of e-services while customers could retrieve these services from the web and fuse them into combinations of new value-adding e-services in different ways. The theme of the conference deals with the contribution of operational research philosophies, methods and techniques to the design, performance and delivery of e-services. Papers submitted to the conference are targeted towards those engaged in the academic and practical aspects of e- Commerce, e-Business and e-Government.

R. Bisdorff (2004). Preference aggregation with multiple criteria of ordinal significance. In: D. Bouyssou, M. Janowitz, F. Roberts, and A. Tsouki´s (eds.), Annales du LAMSADE, 3, Octobre 2004, Université Paris-Dauphine, pp. 25-44 [ISSN 1762-455X] (downloadable PDF file 167.6Kb).

More » In this paper we address the problem of aggregating outranking situations in the presence of multiple preference criteria of ordinal significance. The concept of ordinal concordance of the global outranking relation is defined and an operational test for its presence is developed. Finally, we propose a new kind of robustness analysis for global outranking relations taking into account classical dominance, ordinal and classical majority concordance in a same ordinal valued logical framework.

R. Bisdorff and M. Roubens (2004). Le temps de noyaux ... . Dans J. Bair et V. Henry (ed.), Regards croisés sur les méthodes quantitatives de gestion. Les Éditions de l'Université de Liègie, Liège, 2004, pp. 41-54, (downloadable PDF file 161.1Kb ).

More » L'objet de cette étude est de construire une recommandation de choix des meilleurs objets au sein d'un ensemble d'objets (appelés parfois actions potentielles) sur lequel on a défini une relation de surclassement de type préférence, indifférence, incomparabilité. Lorsque la recommandation se résume à un meilleur objet unique on parle de choix final d'une seule meilleure action (cf. B. Roy et D. Bouyssou, 1993). De nombreuses approches existent pour définir un tel sous-ensemble et parmi elles ,celle inspirée de la théorie des jeux et proposée en 1944, par J. von Neumann et O. Morgenstern. Ils retiennent un ensemble intérieurement stable ou simplement stable (les objets retenus sont incomparables entre eux) et extérieurement stable ou dominant (un objet non retenu est surclassé par au moins un des objets retenus). J. Riguet (1948) donne à ce concept de double stabilité intérieure et extérieure le nom de noyau. B. Roy utilise également cette approche dans un contexte d'aide multicritère à la décision et propose de considérer comme recommandation du meilleur choix unique les actions du noyau du graphe induit par la relation de surclassement (graphe de surclassement). La difficulté de mise en œuvre de cette procédure de sélection réside en la possible vacuité ou multiplicité des noyaux dues à la présence éventuelle de circuits non transitifs. Dans ce cas, il est alors proposé de partitionner le graphe de surclassement en circuits maximaux et de rendre équivalentes toutes les actions du circuit en réduisant tout ou partie de ces circuits à une seule classe d'équivalence (ELECTRE I). On peut également envisager d'augmenter la différenciation des actions en supprimant certaines relations de surclassement de manière à assurer la rupture d'un circuit (ELECTRE IS). La contraction ou la rupture de circuits (guidée par un indicateur de robustesse) permet ainsi d'obtenir un noyau unique, c'est-à-dire une recommandation de meilleur choix unique, qui peut en plus être facilement construite grâce à la mise en ordre des sommets du graphe, dans ce cas assurée. Notre approche retient également le concept de noyau pour définir une recommandation de meilleur choix unique. Cependant elle est originale par le fait qu'elle prend en compte à la fois les bonnes actions (sous-ensembles stables et dominants) et les mauvaises actions, c'est-à-dire les sous-ensembles stables et absorbants (un objet non retenu surclasse au moins un des objets considérés comme mauvaises actions). N'ayant pas à recourir à la réduction des circuits maximaux en classes présumées d'ex aequo ou à la rupture de circuits, notre approche évite les modifications plus ou moins arbitraires du graphe de surclassement donné.

R. Bisdorff and M. Roubens (2004), Choice procedures in pairwise comparison multiple-attribute decision making methods. In R. Berghammer, B. Möller, G. Struth (ed.), Relational and Kleene-Algebraic Methods in Computer Science: 7th International Seminar on Relational Methods in Computer Science and 2nd International Workshop on Applications of Kleene Algebra, Bad Malente, Germany, May 12-17, 2003. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Volume 3051/2004, pp 1--7. [ISBN: 3-540-22145-X] Electronic edition DOI: 10.1007/b98117 (Downloadable preprint version).

More » We consider extensions of some classical rational axioms introduced in conventional choice theory to valued preference relations. The concept of kernel is revisited using two ways: one proposes to determine kernels with a degree of qualification and the other presents a fuzzy kernel where every element of the support belongs to the rational choice set with a membership degree. Links between the two approaches is emphasized. We exploit these results in Multiple-attribute Decision Aid to determine the good and bad choices. All the results are valid if the valued preference relations are evaluated on an ordinal scale.

R. Bisdorff (2004), On a natural fuzzification of Boolean logic, in Erich Peter Klement and Endre Pap (editors), Proceedings of the 25th Linz Seminar on Fuzzy Set Theory, Mathematics of Fuzzy Systems. Bildungszentrum St. Magdalena, Linz (Austria), February 2004. pp. 20-26 (PDF file (133.4 Kb) for downloading).

More » In this paper we propose two logically sound fuzzification and defuzzification techniques for implementing a credibility calculus on a set of propositional expressions. Both rely on a credibility evaluation domain using the rational interval [-1,1] where the sign carries a split truth/falseness denotation. The first technique implements the classic Min and Max operators where as the second technique implements Bochvar-like operators. Main interest in the communication is given to the concept of natural fuzzification of a propositional calculus. A formal definition is proposed and the demonstration that both fuzzification techniques indeed verify this proprety is provided.


R. Bisdorff (Editor) (2003), Human Centred Processes: Distributed decision making and man-machine cooperation, Proceedings of the 14th Mini-EURO Conference HCP'2003, May 2003, Centre Universitaire, Luxembourg.

More » The EURO working group on Human Centered Processes (HCP) aims at placing human beings at the center of future development of the knowledge-based society, and more specifically at studying operational strategies and processes used by people in professional contexts. The focus of the 14th Mini-EURO Conference was on distributed decision making and human-machine cooperation. An extensive refereeing process resulted in the selection of 47 individual research papers. Our three distinguished guest speakers were Professors Peter Todd, Paul Slovic, and Ola Svenson. Collectively, the three plenary sessions provided a comprehensive view of the state of the art in decision making research. Altogether, the authors represent at least 21 countries and four continents: Algeria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and United States of America. In addition, the program contained two practitioner panels focusing on critical decision making: one on military applications, and the second on human-machine cooperation in aviation. Both panels consisted of domain practitioners and academics specializing in the respective fields. We also devote one regular presentation session to critical decision making. Here, the contributions of Debernard, Crévitz and Millot and Fields and Amaldi focus on air traffic control issues, whereas that of Kersten, Michalowski and Wilk addresses triage support for mobile clinical systems.
The individual sessions ranged from the very specific to the broad and fundamental. The presentations fall into five general categories: In-depth modeling of specific problem areas (Agent Modeling, Annualized Work Time, and Visualization in Large Databases), Applications (Industrial and New Technology), Basic Concepts and Theory (Communities of Practice, Complex Systems, and Contextual Knowledge), Distributed Collaborative/Decision Systems/Learning, and Methods (Data Mining, Heuristics, Mathematical Approaches to HCP, and Novel Methods).
Within the in-depth modeling of specific problem areas grouping, Ferraris, Fioretti, and Remondino focus on key aspects of agent modeling; Azmat and Widmer, Chan, Zemmouri and Weill, and Corominas and Lusa on annualized work time modeling; and Noirhomme, Thanh-Nghi and Poulet, and Noy and Schroeder on visualization techniques in large databases.
Two sessions are devoted to industrial and new technology applications, respectively. The contribution by Thibault, Lanouette, Fonteix, Kiss, and Zaras addresses decision making applied to a high yield pulping process. Escobar-Toledo and Lópes-García present a model for assigning maintenance priorities in an oil production setting. Habbi and Zelmat develop a drum boiler linguistic model for complexity reduction and interpretability improvement. The presentations in the new technology grouping consist of a ethical multi-criteria decision support web-based system (Kaklauskas, Zavadskas, Kaklauskiene, and Trinkunas), a simulation of a smart wheelchair in a virtual scene (Niniss and Nadif), and a framework for assessing the impact of new technology in sports annotation (Kilner, Trepess, Economou, Jennings and Winter).
The basic concepts and theory grouping consists of three quite varied components: communities of practice, complex systems, and contextual knowledge. Figueiro discusses collaborative platforms and distributed decision in the public sector. Dargam and Barnhart take steps toward decision support systems for planning distance learning. Huis in't Veld, Soekijad and Enserink explore learning in inter-organizational communities of practice. Within the complex systems grouping, Müller-Merbach discusses challenges of self-leadership, and DeTombe complex issues associated with large cities. Finally, the role of contextual knowledge on decision making is discussed by Brézillon, Pomerol and Brézillon, and Lundberg. Here, the discussion will center on contextual graphs, the proceduralization of contextual knowledge, and the spontaneous emergence of context, respectively.
The contributions in the distributed collaborative/decision systems grouping address collaborative learning (Grosjean, Pudelko and Henri, Hautecouverture, Grégori, Charoy, Godart, Patten, and Faugeras, and Heraud), distributive collaborative systems (Lourenço and Costa, Melo and Costa, and Antunes, Melo, and Costa), and distributed decision systems (Gachet and Haettenschwiller, Coppin and Skryzniarz, and Papamichail and Robertson). The varied contributions address collaborative distance learning, share and re-use experience in training, public participation in support systems, the collaboration studio, the differences and similarities between individual and distributed decision aids, and alternative generation and screening in distributed decision processes.
Finally, four important sessions are devoted to methodology: data mining, heuristics, mathematical approaches to HCP, and novel methods. Vaillant, Picouet and Lenca present a platform for rule quality benchmarking; Blanchard, Guillet and Briand develop a virtual reality environment for knowledge mining; and Boniver and Meyer explore market investigation and knowledge acquisition through data observation. Within the heuristics sub-grouping, Papamichail applies the k-means range algorithm to personalized data clustering in e-commerce; Ridwan's non-shortest paths route choice model is based on fuzzy preference relations; whereas Schweigert applies a fuzzy-based expert system to management by exception. The sub-group of mathematical approaches to HCP contains contributions by Labreuche and Grabisch and Marichal, addressing the Choquet integral's applicability to ratio scales and aggregation, and by Koshlai and Mikhalevich who present a hierarchical procedure aiding human expertise. Finally, under the novel methods umbrella, De Smets presents multicriteria auctions, Janetzko the case of Bayesian networks for user modeling, and Labreuche and Grabisch the importance of bi-cooperative games.


R. Bisdorff (2002), Electre like clustering from a pairwise fuzzy proximity index,European Journal of Operational Research EJOR, Vol. 138/2, pp. 320-331 (Downloadable proofs)

More » In this paper we propose to apply the concept of L-valued kernels to the problem of clustering judges from a pairwise L-valued binary proximity index observed on a set of qualitative preference judgments as encountered in the fuzzy preference modelling context. This work follows our paper concerning the application of initial and terminal L-valued kernels to bipolar ranking of decision actions from a pairwise fuzzy outranking index as proposed in the Electre decision aid methods. Here we propose to apply a same operational technique to construct similarity clusters from a pairwise fuzzy proximity index.
First, we introduce the clustering problem, then we briefly sketch the concept of L-valued kernel and show its eventual use in implementing a clustering procedure. In a third section, we finally present the application of our method to the clustering of movie critics in Luxembourg. In particular we will discuss how to cope with missing values.

R. Bisdorff (2002), Logical Foundation of Multicriteria Preference Aggregation. Essay in Aiding Decisions with Multiple Criteria, D. Bouyssou et al. (editors), Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 379-403 (downloadable preliminary version PDF file 138.0Kb)

More » In this chapter, we show Bernard Roy's contribution to modern computational logic. Therefore we first present his logical approach for multicriteria preference modelling. Here, decision aid is based upon a refined methodological construction, that provides the family of criteria with important logical properties giving access to the concordance principle used for aggregating preferential assertions from multiple semiotical points of view. In a second section, we introduce the semiotical foundation of the concordance principle and present a new formulation of the concordance principle with its associated necessary coherence axioms imposed on the family of criteria. This new methodological framework allows us, in a third part, to extend the classical concordance principle and its associated coherence axioms imposed on the family of criteria first, to potentially redundant criteria, but also to missing individual evaluations and even partial performance tableaux.

J.P. Barthélemy, R. Bisdorff and Ph. Lenca (Guest editors) (2002), Human Centered Processes. Feature Issue, European Journal of Operational Research EJOR, Volume 136, Number 2, January 16, 2002, pp. 231-352.

More » This Feature Issue contains, apart the introductory paper by J.-P. Barthélemy, R. Bisdorff and G. Coppin, mentioned below, nine selected papers from the 10th Mini EURO HCP'99 Conference, held in Brest (France), September 1999.

J.P. Barthélemy, R. Bisdorff and G. Coppin (2002), Human Centered Processes and Decision Support Systems, European Journal of Operational Research EJOR, 136(2002) 231-252 (PDF file (562.1 Kb) for downloading).

More » This paper emphasizes the role of human factors in Decision Support Systems and related assisting tools that can be used in the Operational Research field. It links both historical information and real life realizations concerning human centered processes. The historical points mentioned in the paper give only partial emphasis, according to the feeling of the authors. The aim, here, is essentially to review some tools (e.g., utility theory, cognitive modelling, etc.) that are or might be used to tackle new problems in the context of anthropocentered systems, especially when concerning the recent evolution of Information Systems towards distributed ones. Several real-life problems (mostly in industrial setting) are reviewed. They all concern aplications on which the authors have worked (or are working) together.

R. Bisdorff (2002), Design and Implementation of Decision Making Checkers for Industrial Production Scheduling, Control, and Maintenance. PhD Dissertation, Université de Liège (dowloadable manuscript PDF file 3.5Mb).

More » This document gathers research results obtained from 1994 to 2001 in the field of human centred decision aid. Our focus, stimulated by the contact with Jean-Pierre Barthélemy, was concentrated on the design and implementation of decision making checkers in the context of inductrial production systems. The dissertation is organized into three parts: a first one devoted to general methodlogical foundations of a human expertise centred decision aid appproach; a second Part relates three industrial case studies; and a last Part concerning industrial and scientific validation issues of our work.

2000 and before

R. Bisdorff (2000a), Logical foundation of fuzzy preferential systems with application to the electre decision aid methods, Computers and Operations Research, 27 (2000) 673-687 (downloadable preliminary version PDF file 159.1Kb)

More » In this paper we introduce split truth/falseness semantics for a multi-valued logical processing of fuzzy preference modelling. Our approach takes as starting point the standard framework of fuzzy outranking relations as proposed by the French multi-criteria decision aid community. Formal links between a given relational credibility calculus and associated truth polarization techniques will be discussed. The main result is the establishment of a multi-valued logical framework which allows us to naturally postpone any necessary defuzzification step to the end of the decision problem.

R. Bisdorff (2000b), Illustrative Benchmark Analyses, in H.-H. Bock and E. Diday (eds), Analysis of Symbolic Data, Springer Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg 2000, ISBN 3-540-66619-2, Chapter 13, pp. 355-385.

More » The actual development of the SODAS software based on symbolic data analysis as extensively described in the previous chapters of this book was accompanied by a series of benchmark activities involving some official statistical institutes throughout Europe. Partners in these benchmark activities were the National Statistical Institute (INE) of Portugal, the Instituto Vasco de Estadistica Euskal (EUSTAT) from Spain, the Office For National Statistics (ONS) from the United Kingdom, the Inspection Générale de la Sécurité Sociale (IGSS) from Luxembourg and marginally the University of Athens.
The principal goal of these benchmark activities was to eventually demonstrate usefulness of symbolic data analysis for practical statistical exploitation and analysis of official statistical data.
This chapter aims to briefly report from these activities by presenting some significant insights onto practical results obtained by the benchmark partners in using the SODAS software package as described in chapter 14 below.
Our editorial criteria for compiling the illustrative examples of this chapters are as follows: - First, we aim at readability of the examples for general statisticians not necessarily working in a national official statistical institute; - A second framing aspect was externally given to us by the at that time available SODAS software package in the sense that all hereafter discussed statistical results were obtained by a practical application of the at that time released version 1.031 of the SODAS workbench.
The chapter is divided into three parts: - First we present the results obtained in the context of social security statistics where professional careers of retired working persons from Luxembourg are analysed with the help of the SODAS software. - A second illustrative example relates some results obtained from a common exploitation and analysis of the labour force survey provided by EUSTAT and INE. This example tends to show usefulness of the symbolic data analysis for joining statistical results from different statistical institutes as is common in the European Union at the level of EUROSTAT. - Finally, a last example concerns processing of ONS Census data.

R.Bisdorff and E. Diday (2000c), Symbolic Data Analysis and the SODAS Software in Official Statistics, in H.A.L. Kiers, J.-P. Rasson et al. (eds), Data Analysis, Classification, and Related Methods, Springer Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg 2000, pp. 401-408. [ISBN 3-540-67521-3].

More » The need to extract new knowledge from complex data contained in relational databases is increasing. Therefore, it becomes a task of first importance to summarise huge data sets by their underlying concepts in order to extract useful knowledge. These concepts can only be described by more complex data type called ''symbolic data''. We define ''Symbolic Data Analysis'' (SDA) as the extension of standard Data Analysis to symbolic data tables. The ''Symbolic Data Analysis'' theory is now enhanced by a new software tool called ''SODAS'' which results from the effort of 17 European teams (sponsored by EUROSTAT). This is shown by several applications in Official Statistics.

R. Bisdorff (1999a), Bipolar ranking from pairwise fuzzy outrankings, Belgian Journal of Operations Research, Statistics and Computer Science, Vol. 37 (4) 97 379-387. (PDF file (351.7 Kb) for downloading).

More » In this paper we propose to apply the concept of L-valued kernels to the problem of constructing a global ranking from a pairwise L-valued outranking relation defined on a set of decision alternatives as encountered in the fuzzy preference modelling context. Our approach is based on a repetitive selection of best and worst candidates from sharpest L-valued or most credible initial and terminal kernels. A practical illustration concerns the global ranking of movies from individual evaluations by a given set of movies critics.

R. Bisdorff (1999b), Cognitive support methods for multi-criteria expert decision making, European Journal of Operational Research, 119 (1999) 379-387 (PDF file (177.8 Kb) for downloading).

More » In this paper, we present different cognitive methods for supporting an expert decision maker in his/her daily decision practice. The first part of the paper deals with the construction of a cognitive artifact of the decision problem. The second part discusses the main methodological components of our approach and the final part introduces some possible approaches as candidates for ecological validation.

Early work on computing valued digraph kernels and constraint logic programming

R. Bisdorff (1998), On Designing an L-valued Prolog Engine, paper published in the Proceedings of BENELOG'98, the 9th Benelux Workshop on Logic Programming, CWI, Amsterdam, November 20, 1998 pp 1-22 (PDF file (285.8 kB) for downloading).

More » We discuss some theoretical and ractical arguments for designing a bipolarly valued extension of Prolog.

R. Bisdorff (1997), On computing kernels on L-valued simple graphs, Extended abstract published in the Proceedings of EUFIT'97, 5th European Congress on Fuzzy and Intelligent Technologies, Aachen, September 8-11, 1997 pp 97-103 (PDF file (265.7 kB) for downloading).

More » In this extended abstract we present a decomposition of a given L-valued binary relation into a set of L-sub-relations of kernel-dimension one. We apply this theoretical result to the design of a fast algorithm for computing L-valued kernels on general L-valued simple graphs.

R. Bisdorff (1996), On defining and computing kernels on L-valued simple graphs. In Proceedings of the 2nd International FLINS Workshop, Mol, Belgium September 25-27, 1996, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., pp 113-122 (PDF file (5.7 MB) for downloading).

More » In this paper, we introduce the concept of fuzzy kernels defined on L-valued finite simple graphs in a sense close to fuzzy preference modelling. First we recall the classic concept of kernel associated with a crisp binary relation defined on a finite set. In a second part, we introduce L-fuzzy binary relations. In a third part, we generalize the crisp kernel concept to such L-fuzzy binary relations and, in a last part, we present an application to fuzzy choice functions on fuzzy outranking relations.

R. Bisdorff (1996), On computing kernels on fuzzy simple graphs by combinatorial enumeration using a CPL(FD) system, in Proceedings of BENELO96, 8th Benelux Workshop on Logic Programming, Louvain-la-Neuve, 9 September 1996 pp 1-11 (PDF file (243.3 kB) for downloading).

More » This paper reports our communication done at the 8th Benelux Work- shop on Logic Programming in Louvain-la-Neuve, 9 September 1996. We presented a constraint formulation in finite domains of the kernel construction on simple graphs and give some comments on implementation in CHIP. Application to fuzzy choice procedures illustrated the theoretical developments.

R. Bisdorff (1996), On linear decompositions of L-valued simple graphs, Research note, Statistics & Decision Research Unit, CRP-Centre Universitaire, Luxembourg June 1996, pp 1-9 (PDF file (303.7 kB) for downloading).

More » We have defined in this note a linear decomposition of a givenL-valued simple graph into a set of independant L-alignements. The original relation may be naturally recomposed in a global relation of same shape and of same kernel solutions as the original graph. This interesting linear de- and recomposition may be used to implement on the basis of the median β-cut kernels, a fast algorithm for computing the corresponding L-valued kernel solutions. Practical experiments have shown a very significant amelioration (1 to 50) in time for solving even small-sized examples as the well known car selection data of the Electre IS method.

R. Bisdorff and S. Laurent (1995), Industrial linear optimization problems solved by constraint logic programming, European Journal of Operational Research, 84 (1995) 82-95 (PDF file (1007.1 Kb) for downloading).

More » In this article, we try to illustrate that constraint logic programming (CLP) systems allow easy expression and solution of constrained decision problems. In order to do so, this paper proposes CLP solutions for two industrial linear optimization problems respectively using the Prolog III and the CHIP language. The first problem, a mixed linear multicriteria selection problem, illustrates the general linear solver. In order to fix some integer variables a branch and bound heuristic is formulated. The second problem, a linear integer multicriteria location problem, is only concerned with integer finite domain variables and is particularaly adapted to the CHIP system that provides a computation domain handling such variables.

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